These reporting standards should be applied to a grey literature search. Moreover, AR imposes enormous health expenditure from higher treatment costs and longer hospital stays [ 5 - 10 ]. As such, the goal of the systematic review was to identify guidelines in the grey literature for school-based breakfast programs in Canada and examine the common and conflicting recommendations and sources of evidence within these guidelines.
Published trials had more participants on average. A questionnaire assessing the attitudes toward inclusion of unpublished data was sent to the authors of meta-analyses and to the editors of the journals that published them Cook Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed.
The reference lists of any previous literature reviews can be particularly helpful for any further potentially relevant studies.
Strategies for the remaining online sources are adapted from this strategy. Issues of time and resources will also be discussed. Applying systematic methods to grey literature searches should improve the quality of review syntheses that include grey literature by providing a more comprehensive and less biassed set of reports to examine.
Three necessary inclusion criteria for the relevant literature were defined: Ten unique search strategies were applied to each search engine, as shown in Additional file 1.
These standards set out best practice for conducting and reporting searches. Received Aug 5; Accepted Sep This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. This means that those carrying out systematic reviews need to search for trials in both the published and grey literature in order to help minimise the effects of publication bias in their review.
The team involved in preparing a Cochrane review should have at least a similar level of expertise with which to appraise unpublished studies as a peer reviewer for a journal. The grey literature search strategy yielded e. Running the searches The searches will not begin until the protocol receives final approval, and are usually run by the Information Specialist.
This review represents a suitable case study of grey literature search methods for two reasons.
Test searches in Google, Google Scholar and six Internet repositories produced unmanageably large yields or non-relevant results and were not included in the review.
Also, it is impossible to screen all retrieved results from Google searches. Literature containing resistance data from the hospital setting only and the literature not describing the origin either from hospital or primary care setting of the samples were excluded.
This paper describes systematic review search methods that were developed and applied to complete a case study systematic review of grey literature that examined guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Data could be combined for three of the five studies. Ideally, researchers should attempt to reach data saturation, in which addition of other content experts is unlikely to uncover additional relevant publications.
The number of content experts contacted may vary depending on the scope of the review and project timelines. The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Institute of Medicine Standards for Systematic Review recommend incorporating grey literature in systematic reviews [2, 4].
For reviews of intervention studies, failure to include grey literature may artificially amplify estimates of treatment effects, given the effects of. To review systematically research studies, which have investigated the impact of grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions.
Search methods We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, ), MEDLINE ( to 20 May ), the Science Citation Index (June ) and.
As stated on the site: "The library is a searchable online bilingual database of peer-reviewed literature, grey literature, as well as data resources on all matters related to health human resources within and concerning Canada.". The System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe, is an open access database to bibliographical references of gray literature produced in Europe and allows you to export records and locate the documents in many research disciplines.
Systematic Review Service. According to Cook, Mulrow, and Haynes, "systematic reviews are scientific investigations in themselves, with pre-planned methods and. The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed account of one systematic review team's experience in searching for grey literature and including it throughout the review.
We provide a brief overview of grey literature before describing our search and review approach.Cochrane review grey literature